logo
head-banner

指南速递 | SOGC临床实践指南 NO.382 剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产(一)

2019-09-16 10:52 来源: 中国妇产科网 作者: 审校:郑剑兰 译者:汪文雁 陈琼 张茜 田迪雅 浏览量: 7995

译者:汪文雁 陈琼 张茜 田迪雅 厦门大学附属成功医院(解放军陆军第七十三集团军医院)

审校:郑剑兰 厦门大学附属成功医院(解放军陆军第七十三集团军医院)

本修订的临床实践指南由作者编写,并通过了产科临床实践数据库和指南管理及监督委员会的审核,同时经加拿大妇产科医师协会(SOGC)理事会批准。

本临床实践指南取代发表于2005年2月的原版本(NO.155)。

关键词

剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道分娩;阴道试产;子宫破裂;引产;缩宫素;前列腺素;米索前列醇。

实践中的变化

1、对于没有禁忌证且剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道分娩(VBAC)可能性大的孕产妇,建议剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产(TOLAC)。

2、分娩间隔小于18个月的孕产妇,TOLAC会增加子宫破裂的风险。

3、为了减少母婴的发病率和死亡率,一旦怀疑子宫破裂需立即剖腹手术,所以,紧急剖宫产的最短时间是不够的。

关键点

1、建议对无临产和阴道分娩禁忌证、有阴道分娩史和/或自然临产的孕产妇进行剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产(TOLAC)。

2、选择性重复剖宫产(ERCS)的孕产妇死亡率的相对风险较高,TOLAC子宫破裂的相对风险较高,但这两种结局的绝对风险均较低;

3、TOLAC发生子宫破裂概率是0.47%;

4、必须告知计划TOLAC的孕产妇,其围产儿死亡的相对风险比ERCS高,但绝对风险较低。

5、在计划TOLAC时,持续胎心监护和可立即剖腹手术是必不可少的。

本文显示了在发布之日出现的临床和科学的进展,可能会发生变化。这些内容不应被解释为强行规定的应遵循的治疗过程或程序,地方机构可以要求修改这些意见,如果进行修改,则应做好记录,未经出版者的事先书面许可,不得以任何形式复制上述内容。

所有人都有权利和责任与医疗保健工作者合作,就其护理作出明智的决定。为了促进知情选择,应向孕产妇提供基于证据的、文化上适合其需要的信息和支持。

本指南是用将孕产妇安排在护理中心的情况下编写的。也就是说,SOGC致力于尊重所有人的权利,包括变性人、非二元性别者和双性人,都可以适用本指南。我们鼓励医疗保健工作者与孕产妇进行有礼貌的对话,将其性别认同作为提供安全和适当护理的关键部分。应了解每位孕产妇及其家属的价值观、信仰和个人需要,并尊重孕产妇选择的护理和治疗方案的最后决定。

摘要

目的:为剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产提供循证指导。

结果:母胎的发病率和死亡率与剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道分娩和重复剖宫产相关。

证据:使用关键词“剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道分娩”搜索MEDLINE数据库中1995年1月1日至2017年10月31日发表的文章,使用加拿大定期健康检查工作组报告中概述的证据标准来评估描述得出的证据质量。

结果:这些指南由加拿大临床实践产科委员会和妇产科学会理事会批准。

建议

1、在没有禁忌证的情况下,经适当讨论和记录母婴风险和益处后,应向所有既往一次子宫下端横切口剖宫产的孕产妇提供剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产,并将讨论记录在案(II-2B)。

2、建议无分娩禁忌、有过顺产史和/或已自然临产的妇女行剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产,因为她们是优秀候选人,且有较高的剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道分娩率 (II-2B)。

3、如果孕产妇有影响剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道分娩成功的消极因素,可以在剖宫产术后再次妊娠进行阴道试产,但应告知他们,剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道分娩的成功率较低,同时并发症和重复剖宫产的风险增加(II-2A)。

4、应告知孕产妇,择期性重复剖宫产的产妇死亡的相对风险较高,剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产的子宫破裂和复合严重并发症的风险较高,但这些结局的绝对风险较低(II-2B)。

5、既往一次子宫下段横切口剖宫产者应被告知,剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产发生子宫破裂的风险为0.47% (II-2A)。

6、应告知孕产妇,在选择性重复剖宫产和剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产中,大多数的其他母体并发症的发生率无显著差异(II-2B)。

7、引产不是剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产的禁忌证(II-2A)。

8、应告知孕产妇,引产与剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道分娩率较低和子宫破裂的风险增加有关,应在适当咨询后谨慎使用。妊娠40周以上的孕产妇引产后发生子宫破裂的风险似乎最高(II-2A)。

9、计划剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产的孕产妇可使用Foley导管促宫颈成熟(II-2B)。

10、不禁止剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产的孕产妇使用催产素引产或催生。然而,使用催产素与子宫破裂的风险增加有关,应在适当咨询后谨慎使用(II-2B)。

11、用前列腺素E2(地诺前列酮)进行药物引产与子宫破裂的风险增加有关,所以,经过适当的咨询,不推荐在剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产中使用(II-2B)。

12、前列腺素E1(米索前列醇)与子宫破裂的高风险有关,不宜用于足月的剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产(II-2A)。

13、两次剖宫产史和一次剖宫史的孕产妇有相似的阴道分娩概率,但剖宫产一次以上的孕产妇在剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产中应被告知子宫破裂的风险较高(II-2B)。

14、关于两次以上剖宫产的孕产妇结局的研究报告有限(I)。

15、臀位的妇女进行剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产并不是绝对禁忌证,然而,应告知她们,此前没有足够评估剖宫产术后再次妊娠臀位阴道试产风险的经验(III-B)。

16、多胎妊娠不是剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产的禁忌证(II-2B)。

17、分娩间隔小于18个月的瘢痕子宫孕产妇应被告知剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产将增加子宫破裂的风险(II-2A)。

18、尽管子宫下段厚度与子宫破裂有一定的关系,但剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产安不安全的绝对界限并不存在,因此,这个时候,我们不能光凭子宫下段的超声测量就告知孕产妇是否能阴道试产(II-2B)。

19、古典式剖宫产或T型子宫切口的孕产妇不适合剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产(II-2A)。

20、既往子宫肌层单层缝合的子宫下段剖宫产的妇女,如希望尝试剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产,应意识到子宫破裂的风险可能增加(II-2A)。

21、应尽一切努力得到既往剖宫产的手术记录,以确定子宫切口的类型。在瘢痕未知的情况下,有关以前分娩情况的信息有助于确定下段横切口的可能性。如果下段横切口的可能性高,可行剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产(II-2B)。

22、计划剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产的孕产妇应被告知,与选择性重复剖宫产相比,剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产的围产儿死亡率和严重发病率的相对风险较高,但绝对风险较低(II-2B)。

23、应告知孕产妇,随着剖宫产的增加,前置胎盘和胎盘植入的风险增加(II-2A)。

24、剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产和选择性重复剖宫产的风险和益处的适当讨论及知情同意书,应作为剖宫产术孕产妇护理计划的一部分。(III-A)。

25、剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产或选择性重复剖宫产的孕产妇的意愿都应明确,既往子宫瘢痕的资料应清楚标记在产前记录中(III-A)。

26、整个小组都应知道在分娩单元中有一名孕产妇接受剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产(III-A)。

27、对剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产的孕产妇进行连续的胎儿心电监测是必要的,因为胎心率描记的变化是子宫破裂存在的关键指标之一(II-2A)。

28、怀疑子宫破裂需立即剖宫产终止妊娠,以降低母婴的发病率和死亡率(III-B)。

29、为了改善子宫破裂情况下的母婴结局,剖宫产术后再次妊娠阴道试产的孕产妇应在有资源立即剖宫产的医院进行(III-B)。

30、孕产妇及其医疗卫生保健工作者必须了解选择分娩地点的产科、麻醉科、儿科和手术室工作人员的可用性(III-A)。

背景/介绍

加拿大剖宫产分娩儿的比例持续上升。2015-2016年医院分娩的剖宫产率是27.9%,而1995-1996年为17.6%[1]。加拿大35岁及以上妇女的初次剖宫产率继续显著高于年轻人(23.6%对17.8%)[2]。加拿大剖宫产的主要指征是瘢痕子宫,占所有剖宫产的30%以上。

虽然加拿大的初次剖宫产率保持在17.8%的稳定水平,但重复剖宫产率(既往剖宫产的孕产妇接受重复剖宫产的比例)稳步上升。在2015-2016年,81%剖宫产史的孕产妇重复剖宫产,重复剖宫产的稳步上升伴随着TOLAC和VBAC的下降[2]。在加拿大 (除了魁北克), 2003年至2014年间 , 197540名 孕周>37 周、一次剖宫产史的单胎妊娠孕产妇中,TOLAC成功率仅为29.7%[3]。加拿大各地的TOLAC成功率差别很大。1998-2014间新斯科舍的TOLAC成功率为37.2%[4],单魁北克医院1995-2003的TOLAC成功率为52%[5],2015-2016年安大略的TOLAC成功率为28.5%至62.2%[6]。

TOLAC的孕产妇中,VBAC成功率也存在很大差异, 在加拿大的2003年至2014年间,范围从47.8%到50.8%[3],魁北克的为65.1%[5],新斯科舍是68.1%[4],在安大略省,2015 - 2017年的 2和3级医院中(出生数据库),一次剖宫产史的孕产妇VBAC成功率为69%。在加拿大,每年超过3万多名孕产妇面临这种选择,是试产阴道分娩还是ERCS。SOGC连同其他专业协会,包括英国皇家妇产科学院和美国妇产科医师协会,建议对有剖宫产史的符合阴道分娩条件的孕产妇提供TOLAC [7-9]。计划TOLAC的对象是本人和医疗保健工作者都权衡了VBAC的风险和益处的孕产妇。适合一个孕产妇的风险和益处的平衡对另一个孕产妇来说似乎是不可接受的[9]。

目的和范围

当计划剖宫产后分娩时,孕产妇本人及其医疗卫生保健工作者需充分讨论TOLAC和ERCS的风险和益处。在某些情况下,禁止TOLAC [10],建议ERCS。但在大多数情况下,VBAC对母婴都是安全的[11-13]。本文回顾了有关TOLAC和ERCS的可用证据,并讨论这些分娩方式选择与母婴的相关风险。加拿大于1985年发表了一份关于TOLAC的共识声明,SOGC于2004年[14]及2005年[15] 分别出版临床实践指南。本文通过1995年1月1日到2018年6月31日发表的文章更新了从2005年的SOGC指南。文章是通过使用关键词“剖宫产后阴道分娩”在MEDLINE数据库检索获得的。数据受到三个重要因素的限制:一,没有TOLAC和剖宫产及ERCS的随机对照试验,二,母婴不良结局是罕见的,需大样本的研究人群来观察其显著差异,最后,孕产妇TOLAC的选择受其既往生育经历、医疗保健工作者和当地资源的严重影响,常常导致在发表报告中的选择偏见[17]。

本指南中建议的证据水平和质量是根据加拿大定期健康检查工作组描述的标准确定的(表1)[18]。

1.png

TOLAC的对象

有剖宫产史的接受正规产前护理的孕产妇应考虑TOLAC [16,19,20],在某些情况下,禁止TOLAC [8],建议ERCS。在许多选择合适的TOLAC的孕产妇中,母婴都可安全地实现阴道分娩[11-13]。

剖宫产后阴道试产的先决条件:

古典式或怀疑古典式剖宫产者

前次剖宫产倒置T型或子宫下段纵切口

既往子宫破裂史

既往子宫重建手术(如子宫肌瘤切除术的全厚度修补、子宫畸形修复、子宫角切除术)

孕产妇本人请求ERCS而不是TOLAC

参考文献

1. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Health indicators interactive tool. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information; 2012.

2. Canadian Institute for Health Information. QuickStats: childbirth indicators by place of residence. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information; 2017. https://apps.cihi.ca/mstrapp/asp/Main.aspx

3. Young CB, Liu S, Muraca GM, et al. Mode of delivery after a previous cesarean birth, and associated maternal and neonatal morbidity. CMAJ 2018;190:E556–64.

4. Smithies M, Woolcott CG, Brock JK, et al. Factors associated with trial of labour and mode of delivery in Robson group 5: a select group of women with previous Caesarean section. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2018;40:704–11.

5. Russillo B, Sewitch MJ, Cardinal L, et al. Comparing rates of trial of labour attempts, VBAC success, and fetal and maternal complications among family physicians and obstetricians. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2008;30:123–8.

6. Vaginal birth after Caesarean in Ontario. Ontario: 2018. http://www. ontarioprenataleducation.ca/vbac/

7. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG practice bulletin no. 115: vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2010;116:450–63. 8. Duan XH, Wang YL, Han XW, et al. Caesarean section combined with temporary aortic balloon occlusion followed by uterine artery embolisation for the management of placenta accreta. Clin Radiol 2015;70:932–7.

9. Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics. Practice bulletin no. 184: vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2017;130:e217–33.

10. SOGC. Vaginal birth after previous Caesarean birth. Clinical practice guideline 1997;68.

11. National Institutes of Health. Cesarean childbirth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981;139:902–9.

12. Flamm BL, Lim OW, Jones C, et al. Vaginal birth after cesarean section: results of a multicenter study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;158:1079–84.

13. Socol ML, Peaceman AM. Vaginal birth after cesarean: an appraisal of fetal risk. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:674–9.

14. Martel MJ, MacKinnon CJ. Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Guidelines for vaginal birth after previous Caesarean birth. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004;26:660–83. quiz 84−6.

15. Martel MJ, MacKinnon CJ. Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Guidelines for vaginal birth after previous Caesarean birth. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2005;27:164–88.

16. Kline J, Arias F. Analysis of factors determining the selection of repeated cesarean section or trial of labor in patients with histories of prior cesarean delivery. J Reprod Med 1993;38:289–92.

17. McMahon MJ. Vaginal birth after cesarean. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1998;41:369–81.

18. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. The Canadian guide to clinical preventive health care. Ottawa: Health Canada; 1994. p. xxxvii. https://canadiantaskforce.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/1994-redbrick-en.pdf.

19. Roberts LJ, Beardsworth SA, Trew G. Labour following caesarean section: current practice in the United Kingdom. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1994;101:153–5.

20. Norman P, Kostovcik S, Lanning A. Elective repeat cesarean sections: how many could be vaginal births? CMAJ 1993;149:431–5.

21. Biswas A. Management of previous cesarean section. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2003;15:123–9.

22. Quilligan EJ. Vaginal birth after cesarean section: 270 degrees. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2001;27:169–73.

23. Scott JR. Avoiding labor problems during vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1997;40:533–41.

24. Rageth JC, Juzi C, Grossenbacher H. Delivery after previous cesarean: a risk evaluation. Swiss Working Group of Obstetric and Gynecologic Institutions. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:332–7.

25. Lovell R. Vaginal delivery after Caesarean section: factors influencing success rates. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1996;36:4–8.

26. Davies GA, Hahn PM, McGrath MM. Vaginal birth after cesarean. Physicians’ perceptions and practice. J Reprod Med 1996;41:515–20.

27. Landon MB, Leindecker S, Spong CY, et al. The MFMU Cesarean Registry: factors affecting the success of trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193:1016–23.

28. Guise JM, Eden K, Denman MA, et al. Vaginal birth after cesarean: new insights. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2010.

29. Weinstein D, Benshushan A, Tanos V, et al. Predictive score for vaginal birth after cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;174:192–8.

30. Srinivas SK, Stamilio DM, Sammel MD, et al. Vaginal birth after caesarean delivery: does maternal age affect safety and success? Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2007;21:114–20.

31. Bujold E, Gauthier RJ. Should we allow a trial of labor after a previous cesarean for dystocia in the second stage of labor? Obstet Gynecol 2001;98:652–5.

32. Hoskins IA, Gomez JL. Correlation between maximum cervical dilatation at cesarean delivery and subsequent vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:591–3.

33. Shipp TD, Zelop CM, Repke JT, et al. Labor after previous cesarean: influence of prior indication and parity. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:913–6.

34. Rossi AC, Prefumo F. Pregnancy outcomes of induced labor in women with previous cesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2015;291:273–80.

35. Zelop CM, Shipp TD, Cohen A, et al. Trial of labor after 40 weeks’ gestation in women with prior cesarean. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:391–3.

36. Zelop CM, Shipp TD, Repke JT, et al. Outcomes of trial of labor following previous cesarean delivery among women with fetuses weighing >4000 g. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:903–5.

37. Flamm BL, Goings JR. Vaginal birth after cesarean section: is suspected fetal macrosomia a contraindication? Obstet Gynecol 1989;74:694–7.

38. Sarno Jr AP, Phelan JP, Ahn MO, et al. Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Trial of labor in women with breech presentation. J Reprod Med 1989;34:831–3.

39. Elkousy MA, Sammel M, Stevens E, et al. The effect of birth weight on vaginal birth after cesarean delivery success rates. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;188:824–30.

40. Srinivas SK, Stamilio DM, Stevens EJ, et al. Safety and success of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in patients with preeclampsia. Am J Perinatol 2006;23:145–52.

41. Mercer BM, Gilbert S, Landon MB, et al. Labor outcomes with increasing number of prior vaginal births after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2008;111:285–91.

42. Rossi AC, D’Addario V. Maternal morbidity following a trial of labor after cesarean section vs elective repeat cesarean delivery: a systematic review with metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;199:224–31.

43. Grobman WA, Lai Y, Landon MB, et al. Development of a nomogram for prediction of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2007;109:806–12.

44. Chaillet N, Bujold E, Dube E, et al. Validation of a prediction model for vaginal birth after caesarean. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2013;35: 119–24.

45. Costantine MM, Fox KA, Pacheco LD, et al. Does information available at delivery improve the accuracy of predicting vaginal birth after cesarean? Validation of the published models in an independent patient cohort. Am J Perinatol 2011;28:293–8.

46. Schoorel EN, Melman S, van Kuijk SM, et al. Predicting successful intended vaginal delivery after previous caesarean section: external validation of two predictive models in a Dutch nationwide registrationbased cohort with a high intended vaginal delivery rate. BJOG 2014;121:840–7. discussion 7.

47. Yokoi A, Ishikawa K, Miyazaki K, et al. Validation of the prediction model for success of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in Japanese women. Int J Med Sci 2012;9:488–91.

48. Annessi E, Del Giovane C, Magnani L, et al. A modified prediction model for VBAC, in a European population. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2016;29:435–9.

49. Eden KB, McDonagh M, Denman MA, et al. New insights on vaginal birth after cesarean: can it be predicted? Obstet Gynecol 2010;116:967–81.

50. Caesarean section. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence: guidance. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence; 2011.

51. Wen SW, Rusen ID, Walker M, et al. Comparison of maternal mortality and morbidity between trial of labor and elective cesarean section among women with previous cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:1263–9.

52. Zwart JJ, Richters JM, Ory F, et al. Uterine rupture in The Netherlands: a nationwide population-based cohort study. BJOG 2009;116:1069–78. discussion 78−80.

53. Stattmiller S, Lavecchia M, Czuzoj-Shulman N, et al. Trial of labor after cesarean in the low-risk obstetric population: a retrospective nationwide cohort study. J Perinatol 2016;36:808–13.

54. Palatnik A, Grobman WA. Induction of labor versus expectant management for women with a prior cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015;212:358.e1−6.

55. Huisman C, Rengerink KO, Jozwiak M, et al. Effectiveness and safety of different methods for induction of labor in women with a previous cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014;210:S333–4.

56. West HM, Jozwiak M, Dodd JM. Methods of term labour induction for women with a previous caesarean section. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017(6):CD009792.

57. Cheng YW, Eden KB, Marshall N, et al. Delivery after prior cesarean: maternal morbidity and mortality. Clin Perinatol 2011;38:297–309.

58. Pickhardt MG, Martin Jr JN, Meydrech EF, et al. Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery: are there useful and valid predictors of success or failure? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;166:1811–5. discussion 5−9.

59. Rouse DJ, Owen J, Hauth JC. Active-phase labor arrest: oxytocin augmentation for at least 4 hours. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:323–8.

60. Kehl S, Weiss C, Rath W. Balloon catheters for induction of labor at term after previous cesarean section: a systematic review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016;204:44–50.

61. Lamourdedieu C, Gnisci A, Agostini A. [Risk of uterine rupture after cervical ripening with ballon catheter on uterus with previous cesarean section]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 2016;45:496–501. [in French].

62. van Gelderen CJ, England MJ, Naylor GA, et al. Labour in patients with a caesarean section scar. The place of oxytocin augmentation. S Afr Med J 1986;70:529–32.

63. Kacmar J, Bhimani L, Boyd M, et al. Route of delivery as a risk factor for emergent peripartum hysterectomy: a case-control study. Obstet Gynecol 2003;102:141–5.

64. Chilaka VN, Cole MY, Habayeb OM, et al. Risk of uterine rupture following induction of labour in women with a previous caesarean section in a large UK teaching hospital. J Obstet Gynaecol 2004;24: 264–5.

65. Wu S, Kocherginsky M, Hibbard JU. Abnormal placentation: twenty-year analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:1458–61.

66. Yucel O, Ozdemir I, Yucel N, et al. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy: a 9-year review. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2006;274:84–7.

67. Stone C, Halliday J, Lumley J, et al. Vaginal births after Caesarean (VBAC): a population study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2000;14:340–8.

68. Zelop CM, Shipp TD, Repke JT, et al. Uterine rupture during induced or augmented labor in gravid women with one prior cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181:882–6.

69. Tikkanen M, Nuutila M, Hiilesmaa V, et al. Prepregnancy risk factors for placental abruption. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2006;85:40–4.

70. Katz VL, Farmer RM, Dean CA, et al. Use of misoprostol for cervical ripening. South Med J 2000;93:881–4.

71. Hill DA, Chez RA, Quinlan J, et al. Uterine rupture and dehiscence associated with intravaginal misoprostol cervical ripening. J Reprod Med 2000;45:823–6.

72. Choy-Hee L, Raynor BD. Misoprostol induction of labor among women with a history of cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184:1115– 7.

73. Cunha M, Bugalho A, Bique C, et al. Induction of labor by vaginal misoprostol in patients with previous cesarean delivery. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1999;78:653–4.

74. Plaut MM, Schwartz ML, Lubarsky SL. Uterine rupture associated with the use of misoprostol in the gravid patient with a previous cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180:1535–42. 75. Wing DA, Lovett K, Paul RH. Disruption of prior uterine incision following misoprostol for labor induction in women with previous cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 1998;91:828–30.

76. Blanchette HA, Nayak S, Erasmus S. Comparison of the safety and efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol (prostaglandin E1) with those of dinoprostone (prostaglandin E2) for cervical ripening and induction of labor in a community hospital. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180: 1551–9.

77. ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice. Committee opinion. Induction of labor for vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2002;99:679–80.

78. Tahseen S, Griffiths M. Vaginal birth after two caesarean sections (VBAC2)-a systematic review with meta-analysis of success rate and adverse outcomes of VBAC-2 versus VBAC-1 and repeat (third) caesarean sections. BJOG 2010;117:5–19.

79. Miller ES, Grobman WA. Obstetric outcomes associated with induction of labor after 2 prior cesarean deliveries. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015;213:89. e1−5.

80. Macones GA, Cahill A, Pare E, et al. Obstetric outcomes in women with two prior cesarean deliveries: is vaginal birth after cesarean delivery a viable option? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:1223–8. discussion 8−9.

81. Landon MB, Spong CY, Thom E, et al. Risk of uterine rupture with a trial of labor in women with multiple and single prior cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2006;108:12–20.

82. Miller DA, Diaz FG, Paul RH. Vaginal birth after cesarean: a 10-year experience. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84:255–8.

83. Flamm BL, Newman LA, Thomas SJ, et al. Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery: results of a 5-year multicenter collaborative study. Obstet Gynecol 1990;76:750–4.

84. Caughey AB, Shipp TD, Repke JT, et al. Rate of uterine rupture during a trial of labor in women with one or two prior cesarean deliveries. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181:872–6.

85. Asakura H, Myers SA. More than one previous cesarean delivery: a 5-year experience with 435 patients. Obstet Gynecol 1995;85:924–9.

86. Spaans WA, van der Vliet LM, Roell-Schorer EA, et al. Trial of labour after two or three previous caesarean sections. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2003;110:16–9.

 87. Phelan JP, Ahn MO, Diaz F, et al. Twice a cesarean, always a cesarean? Obstet Gynecol 1989;73:161–5.

88. Novas J, Myers SA, Gleicher N. Obstetric outcome of patients with more than one previous cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;160:364–7.

89. Hansell RS, McMurray KB, Huey GR. Vaginal birth after two or more cesarean sections: a five-year experience. Birth 1990;17:146–50. discussion 50−1.

90. Granovsky-Grisaru S, Shaya M, Diamant YZ. The management of labor in women with more than one uterine scar: is a repeat cesarean section really the only “safe” option? J Perinat Med 1994;22:13–7.

91. Chattopadhyay SK, Sherbeeni MM, Anokute CC. Planned vaginal delivery after two previous caesarean sections. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1994;101:498–500.

92. Hannah ME, Hannah WJ, Hewson SA, et al. Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: a randomised multicentre trial. Term Breech Trial Collaborative Group. Lancet 2000;356:1375–83.

93. de Meeus JB, Ellia F, Magnin G. External cephalic version after previous cesarean section: a series of 38 cases. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1998;81:65–8.

94. Flamm BL, Fried MW, Lonky NM, et al. External cephalic version after previous cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;165:370–2.

95. Miller DA, Mullin P, Hou D, et al. Vaginal birth after cesarean section in twin gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;175:194–8.

96. Strong Jr TH, Phelan JP, Ahn MO, et al. Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in the twin gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:29–32.

97. Sansregret A, Bujold E, Gauthier RJ. Twin delivery after a previous caesarean: a twelve-year experience. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2003;25: 294–8.

98. Varner MW, Thom E, Spong CY, et al. Trial of labor after one previous cesarean delivery for multifetal gestation. Obstet Gynecol 2007;110:814–9.

99. Sentilhes L, Vayssiere C, Beucher G, et al. Delivery for women with a previous cesarean: guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013;170:25–32.

100. Bujold E, Gauthier RJ. Risk of uterine rupture associated with an interdelivery interval between 18 and 24 months. Obstet Gynecol 2010;115:1003–6.

101. Esposito MA, Menihan CA, Malee MP. Association of interpregnancy interval with uterine scar failure in labor: a case-control study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:1180–3.

102. Huang WH, Nakashima DK, Rumney PJ, et al. Interdelivery interval and the success of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2002;99:41–4.

103. Shipp TD, Zelop CM, Repke JT, et al. Interdelivery interval and risk of symptomatic uterine rupture. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:175–7.

104. Kessous R, Sheiner E. Is there an association between short interval from previous cesarean section and adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome? J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013;26:1003–6.

105. Stamilio DM, DeFranco E, Pare E, et al. Short interpregnancy interval: risk of uterine rupture and complications of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2007;110:1075–82.

106. Bujold E, Bujold C, Hamilton EF, et al. The impact of a single-layer or double-layer closure on uterine rupture. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:1326–30.

107. Kok N, Wiersma IC, Opmeer BC, et al. Sonographic measurement of lower uterine segment thickness to predict uterine rupture during a trial of labor in women with previous Cesarean section: a meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013;42:132–9.

108. Gilliam M, Rosenberg D, Davis F. The likelihood of placenta previa with greater number of cesarean deliveries and higher parity. Obstet Gynecol 2002;99:976–80.

109. Grubb DK, Kjos SL, Paul RH. Latent labor with an unknown uterine scar. Obstet Gynecol 1996;88:351–5.

110. Lau TK, Chan F. Unknown uterine scars, unknown risks. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1994;34:216–7.

111. Beall M, Eglinton GS, Clark SL, et al. Vaginal delivery after cesarean section in women with unknown types of uterine scar. J Reprod Med 1984;29:31–5.

112. Chapman SJ, Owen J, Hauth JC. One- versus two-layer closure of a low transverse cesarean: the next pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:16–8.

113. Roberge S, Chaillet N, Boutin A, et al. Single- versus double-layer closure of the hysterotomy incision during cesarean delivery and risk of uterine rupture. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2011;115:5–10.

114. Bujold E, Hammoud A, Schild C, et al. The role of maternal body mass index in outcomes of vaginal births after cesarean. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193:1517–21.

115. Hibbard JU, Gilbert S, Landon MB, et al. Trial of labor or repeat cesarean delivery in women with morbid obesity and previous cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2006;108:125–33.

116. Chauhan SP, Magann EF, Carroll CS, et al. Mode of delivery for the morbidly obese with prior cesarean delivery: vaginal versus repeat cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:349–54.

117. Jastrow N, Demers S, Gauthier RJ, et al. Adverse obstetric outcomes in women with previous cesarean for dystocia in second stage of labor. Am J Perinatol 2013;30:173–8.

118. Shipp TD, Zelop C, Cohen A, et al. Post-cesarean delivery fever and uterine rupture in a subsequent trial of labor. Obstet Gynecol 2003;101:136–9.

119. Ravasia DJ, Brain PH, Pollard JK. Incidence of uterine rupture among women with mullerian duct anomalies who attempt vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181:877–81.

120. Shipp TD, Zelop C, Repke JT, et al. The association of maternal age and symptomatic uterine rupture during a trial of labor after prior cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2002;99:585–8.

121. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery. ACOG practice bulletin. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1999;66:197–204.

122. Frost J, Shaw A, Montgomery A, et al. Women’s views on the use of decision aids for decision making about the method of delivery following a previous caesarean section: qualitative interview study. BJOG 2009;116:896–905.

123. Vaginal birth after cesarean and planned repeat cesarean birth. http:// www.powertopush.ca/birth-options/types-of-birth/vaginal-birth-aftercesarean/

124. Eden KB, Hashima JN, Osterweil P, et al. Childbirth preferences after cesarean birth: a review of the evidence. Birth 2004;31:49–60.

125. Craver Pryor E, Mertz HL, Beaver BW, et al. Intrapartum predictors of uterine rupture. Am J Perinatol 2007;24:317–21.

126. Desseauve D, Bonifazi-Grenouilleau M, Fritel X, et al. Fetal heart rate abnormalities associated with uterine rupture: a case-control study: a new time-lapse approach using a standardized classification. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016;197:16–21.

127. Leung AS, Leung EK, Paul RH. Uterine rupture after previous cesarean delivery: maternal and fetal consequences. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;169:945–50.

128. Ayres AW, Johnson TR, Hayashi R. Characteristics of fetal heart rate tracings prior to uterine rupture. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2001;74:235– 40.

129. Guiliano M, Closset E, Therby D, et al. Signs, symptoms and complications of complete and partial uterine ruptures during pregnancy and delivery. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2014;179:130–4.

130. Madaan M, Trivedi SS. Intrapartum electronic fetal monitoring vs. intermittent auscultation in postcesarean pregnancies. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2006;94:123–5.

131. Holmgren C, Scott JR, Porter TF, et al. Uterine rupture with attempted vaginal birth after cesarean delivery: decision-to-delivery time and neonatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2012;119:725–31.

132. Bujold E, Gauthier RJ. Neonatal morbidity associated with uterine rupture: what are the risk factors? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:311–4.

133. Leung TY, Lao TT. Timing of caesarean section according to urgency. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2013;27:251–67.

134. Schauberger CW, Chauhan SP. Emergency cesarean section and the 30- minute rule: definitions. Am J Perinatol 2009;26:221–6.

135. Yap OW, Kim ES, Laros Jr RK. Maternal and neonatal outcomes after uterine rupture in labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184:1576–81.

中国妇产科网.jpg